Background: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in travelers is still controversial. Over the last decade, national and international consortia have published recommendations for treating CL in travelers. These guidelines harmonize many issues, but there are some discrepancies.
Methods: Leishmania parasites causing CL can now be genotyped by polymerase chain reaction techniques for detecting Leishmania DNA. Therefore, treatment recommendations can now be species based rather than based on geographical exposure. To review the evidence on which the recommendations were based, "LeishMan" (Leishmaniasis Management), a group of experts from 13 institutions in eight European countries, performed a PubMed MEDLINE) literature search and considered unpublished evidence and the experts' own personal experiences. The Oxford evidence grading system was used to evaluate the information.
Results and conclusion: In this article, the authors provide practical treatment recommendations for imported CL and ML in Europe, drawn up from the review by the European experts.