Sepsis, a clinical syndrome occurring in patients following infection or injury, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current immunological mechanisms do not explain the basis of cellular dysfunction and organ failure, the ultimate cause of death. Here we review current dogma and argue that it is time to delineate novel immunometabolic and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the altered cellular bioenergetics and failure of epithelial and endothelial barriers that produce organ dysfunction and death. These mechanisms might hold the key to future therapeutic strategies.
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