Although the histologic features of alveolar soft part sarcoma and granular cell tumor are typically distinctive, occasional cases show a significant morphologic overlap. Differentiating these entities is crucial because granular cell tumor is almost always benign and alveolar soft part sarcoma is invariably malignant. We evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical stains (S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, nestin, calretinin, and TFE3) in 13 alveolar soft part sarcomas and 11 granular cell tumors. Tissue sections were also stained by the periodic acid-Schiff method after diastase digestion (PAS-D) and evaluated for coarse cytoplasmic granularity or crystalline cytoplasmic inclusions. S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, and nestin each distinguished granular cell tumor and alveolar soft part sarcoma with 100% sensitivity and specificity. PAS-D staining also distinguished cases with 100% accuracy, as granular cell tumor consistently demonstrated coarsely granular, PAS-D-positive cytoplasm and alveolar soft part sarcoma showed only focal intracytoplasmic crystalline inclusions. Although all granular cell tumors were calretinin positive, so were 46% of alveolar soft part sarcomas. TFE3 was positive in 91% of granular cell tumors and all alveolar soft part sarcomas. Together with PAS-D, immunohistochemical stains for S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, and nestin accurately identify alveolar soft part sarcoma and granular cell tumor. Although TFE3 has been reported as a relatively specific marker for alveolar soft part sarcoma, it should be recalled that it is also expressed in most granular cell tumors.
Keywords: Alveolar soft part sarcoma; Granular cell tumor; Inhibin; Nestin; S-100 protein; SOX10.
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