Objectives: 1) To describe autoimmune diseases (AD) in HIV-infected people; and 2) to perform a literature review concerning this issue.
Design: 52 HIV-infected patients that presented an AD in 14 medical departments in Paris and Ile-de-France area were retrospectively included in this study.
Results: The ADs were vasculitis (11), immune cytopenias (8), rheumatic diseases (8), lupus (7), sarcoidosis (7), thyroid diseases (6), hepatic diseases (5), and antiphospholipid syndrome (4). Four patients presented 2 ADs. In 5 patients the AD preceded HIV infection, in 14 HIV infection was diagnosed at the same time as the AD and 34 were HIV-infected when they developed an AD. 40 ADs (80%) occurred in patients with a CD4 T lymphocyte count of more than 200/mm(3). Cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurred only in patients severely immunodepressed. In five patients (a vasculitis case, a sarcoidosis case, three thyroid disease cases) the AD presented as a form of immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Some ADs allowed HIV-infection diagnosis at a stage of moderate immune deficiency (vasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, immune thrombocytopenia). 37 patients received immunosuppressant treatments with good tolerance. These results confirm in a large series of patients previous data concerning autoimmune diseases occurrence in HIV-infected people.
Conclusion: In the HAART era, when HIV-infected people are treated more and more early, autoimmune diseases can occur, mainly at the phase of immunological recovery. HIV infection should not limit immunosuppressant treatment use.
Keywords: Autoimmunity; HIV; Immunosuppressant drugs.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.