The cerebral cortex contains dozens of neuronal subtypes grouped in specific layers and areas. Recent studies have revealed how embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSC) can differentiate into a wide diversity of cortical neurons in vitro, while recapitulating many of the temporal and spatial features that characterize corticogenesis. PSC-derived neurons can integrate into the brain following in vivo transplantation and display patterns of morphology and connectivity specific of cortical neurons. PSC-corticogenesis thus emerges as a robust model that provides new ways to link cortical development, evolution, and disease.
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