Decreased Staphylococcus aureus and increased osteoblast density on nanostructured electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on titanium without the use of pharmaceuticals

Int J Nanomedicine. 2014 Apr 8:9:1775-81. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S55733. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Background: Plasma-spray deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium (Ti) has proven to be a suboptimal solution to improve orthopedic-implant success rates, as demonstrated by the increasing number of orthopedic revision surgeries due to infection, implant loosening, and a myriad of other reasons. This could be in part due to the high heat involved during plasma-spray deposition, which significantly increases hydroxyapatite crystal growth into the nonbiologically inspired micron regime. There has been a push to create nanotopographies on implant surfaces to mimic the physiological nanostructure of native bone and, thus, improve osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions and inhibit bacteria functions. Among the several techniques that have been adopted to develop nanocoatings, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive, versatile, and effective material-processing technique.

Objective: The in vitro study reported here aimed to determine for the first time bacteria responses to hydroxyapatite coated on Ti via EPD.

Results: There were six and three times more osteoblasts on the electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 5 days of culture, respectively. Impressively, there were 2.9 and 31.7 times less Staphylococcus aureus on electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 18 hours of culture, respectively.

Conclusion: Compared with uncoated Ti and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coated on Ti, the results provided significant promise for the use of EPD to improve bone-cell density and be used as an antibacterial coating without resorting to the use of antibiotics.

Keywords: bacteria; electrophoretic deposition; inhibition; nanotechnology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alloys
  • Cell Count
  • Cell Line
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / pharmacology*
  • Durapatite / chemistry*
  • Electrophoresis / methods
  • Electroplating / methods*
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects
  • Osteoblasts / physiology*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / physiology*
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*

Substances

  • Alloys
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • titanium alloy (TiAl6V4)
  • Durapatite
  • Titanium