Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 109 (4), 547-57

Efficacy of Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement in Non-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Youth: A Systematic Review

Review

Efficacy of Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement in Non-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Youth: A Systematic Review

Kara Simone Bagot et al. Addiction.

Abstract

Background and aims: Increasing prescription stimulant abuse among youth without diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of concern. The most frequently cited motive for abuse is improved academic achievement via neurocognitive enhancement. Our aim in reviewing the literature was to identify neurocognitive effects of prescription stimulants in non-ADHD youth.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted for youth aged 12–25 years using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fourteen papers were included.

Results: Modafinil appears to improve reaction time (P ≤ 0.04), logical reasoning (P ≤ 0.05) and problem-solving. Methylphenidate appears to improve performance in novel tasks and attention-based tasks (P ≤ 0.05), and reduces planning latency in more complex tasks (P ≤ 0.05). Amphetamine has been shown to improve consolidation of information (0.02 ≥ P ≤ 0.05), leading to improved recall. Across all three types of prescription stimulants, research shows improved attention with lack of consensus on whether these improvements are limited to simple versus complex tasks in varying youth populations.

Conclusions: The heterogeneity of the non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth population, the variation in cognitive task characteristics and lack of replication of studies makes assessing the potential global neurocognitive benefits of stimulants among non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth difficult; however, some youth may derive benefit in specific cognitive domains.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of interests

Dr Bagot reports no financial support or conflicts of interest. Dr Kaminer receives financial support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and royalties for books from Hazelden, Routledge and APPI.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Methods

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 16 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles
Feedback