Altering the growth conditions of Gluconacetobacter xylinus to maximize the yield of bacterial cellulose

Carbohydr Polym. 2012 Jun 20;89(2):613-22. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.03.059. Epub 2012 Mar 28.


An extensive matrix of different growth conditions including media, incubation time, inoculum volume, surface area and media volume were investigated in order to maximize the yield of bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which will be used as reinforcement material to produce fully biodegradable composites. Crystallinity was shown to be controllable depending on the media and conditions employed. Samples with significant difference in crystallinity in a range from 50% to 95% were produced. Through experimental design, the yield of cellulose was maximized; primarily this involved reactor surface area design, optimized media and the use of mannitol being the highest cellulose-producing carbon source. Increasing the volume of the media did achieve a higher cellulose yield, however this increase was not found to be cost or time effective.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cellulose / chemistry
  • Cellulose / metabolism*
  • Crystallization
  • Fructose / metabolism
  • Gluconacetobacter xylinus / growth & development
  • Gluconacetobacter xylinus / metabolism*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glycerol / metabolism
  • Mannitol / metabolism
  • Surface Properties


  • Fructose
  • Mannitol
  • Cellulose
  • Glucose
  • Glycerol