The role of environmental, virological and vector interactions in dictating biological transmission of arthropod-borne viruses by mosquitoes

Adv Virus Res. 2014;89:39-83. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800172-1.00002-1.

Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. An inherently complex interaction among virus, vector, and the environment determines successful transmission of the virus. Once believed to be "flying syringes," recent advances in the field have demonstrated that mosquito genetics, microbiota, salivary components, and mosquito innate immune responses all play important roles in modulating arbovirus transmissibility. The literature on the interaction among virus, mosquito, and environment has expanded dramatically in the preceding decade and the utilization of next-generation sequencing and transgenic vector methodologies assuredly will increase the pace of knowledge acquisition in this field. This chapter outlines the interplay among the three factors in both direct physical and biochemical manners as well as indirectly through superinfection barriers and altered induction of innate immune responses in mosquito vectors. The culmination of the aforementioned interactions and the arms race between the mosquito innate immune response and the capacity of arboviruses to antagonize such a response ultimately results in the subjugation of mosquito cells for viral replication and subsequent transmission.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Dissemination; Infection; Mosquito; Transmission; Vector competence.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arbovirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Arbovirus Infections / transmission*
  • Arboviruses / isolation & purification*
  • Climate*
  • Culicidae / immunology*
  • Culicidae / virology*
  • Humans