Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a member of the ROR family consisting of ROR1 and ROR2. RORs contain two distinct extracellular cysteine-rich domains and one transmembrane domain. Within the intracellular portion, ROR1 possesses a tyrosine kinase domain, two serine/threonine-rich domains and a proline-rich domain. RORs have been studied in the context of embryonic patterning and neurogenesis through a variety of homologs. These physiologic functions are dichotomous based on the requirement of the kinase domain. A growing literature has established ROR1 as a marker for cancer, such as in CLL and other blood malignancies. In addition, ROR1 is critically involved in progression of a number of blood and solid malignancies. ROR1 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, potentiate EGFR signaling, and induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, ROR1 is only detectable in embryonic tissue and generally absent in adult tissue, making the protein an ideal drug target for cancer therapy.