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Review
. 2014 Jan;3(1):36-53.
doi: 10.7453/gahmj.2013.009.

Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale Natural Products

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Free PMC article
Review

Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale Natural Products

Iris R Bell et al. Glob Adv Health Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Finding safer and more effective treatments for specific cancers remains a significant challenge for integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of drugs, vaccines, traditional animal venoms, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in cancer treatment. The recent discovery of nanoparticles in traditional homeopathic medicines adds another point of convergence between modern nanomedicine and alternative interventional strategies. A way in which homeopathic remedies could initiate anticancer effects includes cell-to-cell signaling actions of both exogenous and endogenous (exosome) nanoparticles. The result can be a cascade of modulatory biological events with antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a multigenerational clinical system developed by homeopathic physicians in India who have treated thousands of patients with cancer. A number of homeopathic remedy sources from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; Carcinosin-tumor-derived breast cancer tissue prepared homeopathically) overlap those already under study in nonhomeopathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle tumor exosome cancer vaccine research. Past research on antineoplastic effects of nano forms of botanical extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on homeopathic remedy potencies made from the same types of source materials suggests other important overlaps. The replicated finding of silica, silicon, and nano-silica release from agitation of liquids in glassware adds a proven nonspecific activator and amplifier of immunological effects. Taken together, the nanoparticulate research data and the Banerji Protocols for homeopathic remedies in cancer suggest a way forward for generating advances in cancer treatment with natural product-derived nanomedicines.

对全世界的综合临床医生和研究人 员来说,针对特定癌症找到更安全 有效的治疗方法一直是一项严峻的 挑战。 一项新兴战略是采用纳米结 构形式的药物、疫苗、传统动物毒 液、草药和保健食品剂进行癌症治 疗。 针对传统顺势疗法药物纳米颗 粒 (NP) 的一项近期发现结果,在现 代纳米医学与替代性干预战略之间 又新发现了一个共同点。 顺势疗法 启动抗癌作用的方式包括外源性和 内源性(外泌体)纳米颗粒的细胞 间信号活动。 这一结果可能是调节 生物活动与抗增殖作用和细胞凋亡 作用之间产生的级联反应。 Banerji 实验方案反映了印度顺势疗法医生 在治疗了数以千计的癌症患者之后 制定的多世代临床系统。 许多源自 于 Banerji 实验方案的顺势疗法( 如,磷酸钙;癌素—采用顺势疗法 从肿瘤中衍生制备的乳腺癌组织) 与非顺势疗法纳米颗粒和纳米囊泡 肿瘤外泌体癌症疫苗研究中所研究 的疗法存在共同之处。 针对纳米形 式的植物提取物(如,商陆属、断 肠草属、白毛莨属、金钟柏属和芸 香属)抗肿瘤作用以及同类原材料 的顺势疗法潜能进行的过往研究表 明,二者之间还存在其他重要的共 同之处。 研究人员从搅动玻璃器皿 中液体所释放出的产物中一再发现 二氧化硅、硅和纳米硅,为免疫学 反应又新找到了一个经证实的非特 异性催化剂和放大剂。 综合起来, 对癌症的顺势疗法来说,纳米颗粒 研究数据和 Banerji 实验方案表明,采用源自于天然产物的纳米医 药治疗癌症是推动癌症治疗取得进 展的一种方式。

Encontrar tratamientos más seguros y más eficaces para cánceres específicos sigue siendo un desafío significativo para los médicos integrales e investigadores en todo el mundo. Una estrategia emergente es el uso de formas nanoestructuradas de fármacos, vacunas, venenos animales tradicionales, hierbas y agentes nutracéuticos en el tratamiento del cáncer. El reciente descubrimiento de las nanopartículas en medicinas homeopáticas tradicionales aporta otro punto de convergencia entre la nanomedicina moderna y las estrategias intervencionistas alternativas. Una manera en la que los remedios homeopáticos podrían iniciar efectos anticancerígenos incluye acciones de señalización entre células de nanopartículas exógenas y endógenas (exosoma). El resultado puede ser una cascada de acontecimientos biológicos moduladores con efectos antiproliferativos y proapoptóticos. Los protocolos de Banerji reflejan un sistema clínico multigeneracional desarrollado por médicos homeopáticos en la India que han tratado a millares de pacientes con cáncer. Un número de fuentes de remedios homeopáticos de los protocolos de Banerji (p. ej., calcárea fosfórica; carcinosina, tejido derivado del tumor de cáncer de mama preparado homeopáticamente) se solapan con aquellos estudiados en la investigación de la vacuna para el cáncer de exosomas tumorales nanovesiculares y nanopartículas no homeopáticas). Anteriores investigaciones sobre los efectos antineoplásicos de nanoformas de extractos botánicos como la Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja y Ruta así como sobre la potencia de los remedios homeopáticos derivados de las mismas clases de materiales de origen sugieren otras coincidencias importantes. El descubrimiento replicado de la liberación de silicio, silicona y nanosilicio de la agitación de líquidos en cristal añade un activador inespecífico probado y un amplificador de los efectos inmunológicos. En conjunto, los datos de la investigación de nanopartículas y los protocolos de Banerji de remedios homeopáticos en el cáncer sugieren un camino a seguir para avanzar en el tratamiento del cáncer con nanomedicinas derivadas de productos naturales.

Keywords: Banerji Protocols; Cancer treatment protocols; complementary and alternative medicine; exosomes; homeopathy; hormesis; integrative medicine; nanomedicine; nanoparticles; nosodes; pulsed drug dosing.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Bright field transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of nanoparticles and aggregates in homeopathically prepared gold (Aurum metallicum) at 30C (e) and 200C (f) potencies from Indian manufacturer SBL (originally Sharda Boiron Laboratories, Ltd, Delhi, India) and 30C (g) and 200C (h) potencies from the different Indian manufacturer WSI (Schwabe International GmbH, Germany, per Dr Willmar Schwabe India Pvt Ltd, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India). Bulk form remedy source material was presumably diluted out of solution beyond the 12C potency. Reprinted with permission from Chikramane et al, 2010.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Estimation of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) concentrations in top layer (TL) and middle layer (ML) after dilution and succussion of commercial AuNPs using classic homeopathic lactose trituration, ethanol-water dilution, and succussion procedures. Beyond the 6C potency, 99% of the AuNPs are transferred to the next dilution. The original authors indicate that these findings result from a bubble-induced froth flotation process of nanoparticles forming a monolayer at the air-liquid interface. Reprinted with permission from Chikramane et al, 2012.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Silica nanoparticles amplify apoptotic effects of biologically active natural agent. Data from five different experiments are expressed as the mean percentage of apoptotic cells ± SEM for the control (open bars), NP-treated (gray bars), WEV-treated (closed black bars), and WEV+NP–treated (hatched bars). *P < .05, WEV-treated vs NP; #P < .05, WEV+NP-treated vs NP; +P < .05, WEV+NP-treated vs WEV-treated cells. WEV = venom of Walterinnesia aegyptia snake; NP = silica nanoparticles. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 are human breast cancer cells; MCF-10 are normal breast epithelial cells. Reprinted with permission from publisher S. Karger AG, Basel, from reference.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Results of treatment of 1132 cases of lung, brain, and esophageal cancers, August 2006 to August 2007. Source: http://www.pbhrfindia.org/index.php/component/content/archive?year=2011&month=3. Accessed December 3, 2013.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Levels of stress and hormesis, with an optimal stress level that maximally fosters beneficial adaptations. Excessive stress produces overload and development of disease. Homeopathic remedies at low pulsed doses would act therapeutically on the left side of the curve to shape adaptive changes, recovery of complexity, and healing. The dosage and size-related properties of the nanoparticles as a mild cellular and systemic stressor, the adaptability of the cells and organism as complex adaptive systems, and the interaction between the remedy nanoparticles and the system determine the type and direction of effects. The analogy is the nonlinear changes that occur in a sand pile as each grain of sand is added one by one. A single grain of sand arriving at just the critical time can tip the system into an avalanche, thereby triggering vigorous compensatory adaptive responses. Reprinted with permission from Stark et al, 2012.

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