Importance: Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) causes severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and shortened life expectancy. Intractable seizures are invariable in children with ISOD; however, to our knowledge, infantile spasms with a corresponding hypsarrhythmia pattern on electroencephalogram have never been reported. In addition, the nonepileptic paroxysmal movement disorder hyperekplexia has not previously been reported with ISOD.
Observations: We describe an infant with ISOD who initially presented with neonatal seizures, diffusion restriction noted on magnetic resonance imaging, and elevated serum S-sulfocysteine consistent with ISOD. A homozygous mutation in the SUOX gene was identified, confirming the diagnosis. Uniquely, this patient developed a profound accentuated startle response that did not have a corresponding electrographic change on electroencephalogram consistent with hyperekplexia. This was followed by a change in the child's electroencephalogram to the chaotic pattern of hypsarrhythmia and brief tonic seizures with attenuation of the hypsarrhythmia pattern characteristic of infantile spasms.
Conclusions and relevance: The evolution of seizures associated with ISOD is poorly characterized because of the small number of patients. We report what we believe to be the first case of a child with ISOD who developed infantile spasms and hyperekplexia. This expands the phenotypes associated with ISOD and also should caution clinicians to not assume that all abnormal movements are seizures.