Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder associated with maternal hypertension, placental abnormalities and adverse fetal outcomes. The various pathways involved in its etiology include endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory milieu, lipid peroxidation and immunological imbalance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the causative and predictive role of nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation end products (MDA) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) in clinical presentation, severity and fetal outcome in preeclampsia. The study population was divided into 3 groups- Non- pregnant females comprising the control population; G1 and G2 groups included normal pregnant and pregnant females with preeclampsia with 50 patients in each group. Nitric Oxide and MDA levels were found to be highest in the preeclamptic patients as compared to other two groups. ROC curve analysis shows the superiority of the inflammatory markers as determinants of severity of preeclampsia which suggests the emerging role of pro inflammatory markers in the various pathological changes in preeclampsia. TNF-α emerged as the best marker in multivariate analysis and thus, has the potential for being used as a marker for PIH. Our study illustrates the multifactorial etiology of preeclampsia involving oxidative stress, proinflammatory milieu and endothelial dysfunction.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction; IL-6; Inflammation; Lipid peroxidation; MDA; NO; Oxidative stress; Preeclampsia; TNF-α.