Objective: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively investigate whether pretreatment multiparametric MRI findings can predict biochemical recurrence in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer.
Materials and methods: In this study, 282 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer who received RP underwent pretreatment MRI using a phased-array coil at 3 T, including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). MRI variables included apparent tumor presence on combined imaging sequences, extracapsular extension, and tumor size on DWI or DCE-MRI. Clinical variables included baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, and Gleason score at biopsy. The relationship between clinical and imaging variables and biochemical recurrence was evaluated using Cox regression analysis.
Results: After a median follow-up of 26 months, biochemical recurrence developed in 61 patients (22%). Univariate analysis revealed that all the imaging and clinical variables were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, however, baseline PSA level (p = 0.002), Gleason score at biopsy (p = 0.024), and apparent tumor presence on combined T2WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI (p = 0.047) were the only significant independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. Of the independent predictors, apparent tumor presence on combined T2WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI showed the highest hazard ratio (2.38) compared with baseline PSA level (hazard ratio, 1.05) and Gleason score at biopsy (hazard ratio, 1.34).
Conclusion: The apparent tumor presence on combined T2WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI of pretreatment MRI is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence after RP. This finding may be used to construct a predictive model for biochemical recurrence after surgery.