Med Clin North Am. 2014 May;98(3):565-81. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.01.008.


Insomnia, as the term is used by patients and in primary care, is a symptom: dissatisfaction with the quality or quantity of sleep obtained, despite attempts. For acute insomnia, reversal of the trigger (if possible) and treatment with safe, effective sleep medication are advised. For chronic insomnia, as with other types of symptoms, trying to distinguish between several potential underlying causes is key, because no single treatment approach is appropriate for all situations. Specific conditions such as restless legs syndrome, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep apnea have specific treatment approaches.

Keywords: Chronotype; Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I); Hyperarousal; Primary insomnia; Restless legs syndrome; Short sleeper; Sleep restriction therapy; Stimulus control.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Sleep / physiology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / therapy