HIV infected patients are at increased risk for venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Multiple markers related to inflammation (IL-6, TNFrI, C-reative protein) and coagulation (tissue factor expression, FVIII, thrombin, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels) are increased in HIV infection, and several are predictive of thrombotic risk and mortality in HIV disease. The mechanisms behind the risk for abnormal coagulation in HIV infection have not been fully elucidated, but may be related to a chronic immune activation and inflammatory state in both untreated and treated HIV infection. The contribution of traditional risk factors, including smoking and dyslipidemia, overly represented in HIV infected patients, must also be considered when assessing thrombotic risk in this setting. Currently, several interventional studies are aimed at reducing inflammation and cardiovascular risk in HIV disease and may provide insights into the determinants of clotting events in HIV infected patients.
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