Advancing our understanding of the glucose system via modeling: a perspective

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 May;61(5):1577-92. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2014.2310514.


The glucose story begins with Claude Bernard's discovery of glycogen and milieu interieur, continued with Banting's and Best's discovery of insulin and with Rudolf Schoenheimer's paradigm of dynamic body constituents. Tracers and compartmental models allowed moving to the first quantitative pictures of the system and stimulated important developments in terms of modeling methodology. Three classes of multiscale models, models to measure, models to simulate, and models to control the glucose system, are reviewed in their historical development with an eye to the future.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / history
  • Blood Glucose* / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose* / physiology
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Insulin* / metabolism
  • Insulin* / physiology
  • Models, Biological*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Pancreas, Artificial*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin