Objective: To report the incidence rates of TB and HIV in household contacts of index patients diagnosed with TB.
Design: A prospective cohort study in the Matlosana sub-district of North West Province, South Africa.
Methods: Contacts of index TB patients received TB and HIV testing after counseling at their first household visit and were then followed up a year later, in 2010. TB or HIV diagnoses that occurred during the period were determined.
Results: For 2,377 household contacts, the overall observed TB incidence rate was 1.3 per 100 person years (95% CI 0.9-1.9/100py) and TB incidence for individuals who were HIV-infected and HIV seronegative at baseline was 5.4/100py (95% CI 2.9-9.0/100py) and 0.7/100py (95% CI 0.3-1.4/100py), respectively. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.2/100py (95% CI 1.3-8.4/100py).
Conclusions: In the year following a household case finding visit when household contacts were tested for TB and HIV, the incidence rate of both active TB and HIV infection was found to be extremely high. Clearly, implementing proven strategies to prevent HIV acquisition and preventing TB transmission and progression to disease remains a priority in settings such as South Africa.