Purpose: To study whether volume-based indices of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) imaging is an accurate tool to predict the amount of residual viable tumor after induction chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Materials and methods: This study was approved by institutional review board with waivers of informed consent. Twenty-two patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent surgery after induction chemotherapy. All had pre- and posttreatment FDG PET/CT scans. CT largest diameter, CT volume, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (TV), and total lesion glycolysis of primary tumor were calculated. Changes in tumor measurements were determined by dividing follow-up by baseline measurement (ratio index). Amounts of residual viable tumor, necrosis, fibrous tissue, inflammatory infiltrate, and Ki-67 proliferative index were estimated on resected tumor. Correlations between imaging indices and histologic parameters were estimated by using Spearman correlation coefficients or Mann-Whitney tests.
Results: No baseline or posttreatment indices correlated with percentage of residual viable tumor. TV ratio was the only index that correlated with percentage of residual viable tumor (r = 0.61 [95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.81]; P = .003). Conversely, SUVmax and SUVmean ratios were only indices correlated with Ki-67 (r = 0.62 [95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.82]; P = .003; and r = 0.60 [95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.81]; P = .004, respectively). Total lesion glycolysis ratio was moderately correlated with residual viable tumor (r = 0.53 [95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.78]; P = .01) and with Ki-67 (r = 0.57 [95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.80]; P = .006). No ratios were correlated with presence of inflammatory infiltrate or foamy macrophages.
Conclusion: TV and total lesion glycolysis ratios were the only indices correlated with residual viable tumor after induction chemotherapy in locally advanced NSCLC.