Biologic augmentation of foot and ankle arthrodeses with an allogeneic cancellous sponge

Orthopedics. 2014 Mar;37(3):e230-6. doi: 10.3928/01477447-20140225-54.


This case series was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of using an allogeneic cancellous bone sponge for augmentation of foot and ankle arthrodeses. Twenty-five patients were prospectively enrolled in the study prior to undergoing fusion and were then followed for 12 months postoperatively. There were 45 joints: 7 ankles, 12 subtalars, 12 talonaviculars, 6 calcaneocuboids, 1 naviculocuneiform, 6 first tarsometatarsals, and 1 second tarsometatarsal. Patient-reported outcomes of pain (visual analog scale) and function (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score) were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 and 12 months. No complications were noted intraoperatively or during the follow-up period. Three months postoperatively, radiographic osseous union was noted in 52% (13/25) of patients, which further increased to 96% (24/25) of patients at 6 and 12 months. There was no statistically significant difference in union time between joints [H(6)=11.5; P=.08]. Statistically significant improvements in pain (P≤.002) and function (P<.001) were observed across assessments. This study demonstrated that the cancellous bone sponge appears to be a safe and efficacious product. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine if the allogeneic cancellous sponge improves fusion rate, pain, and function.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Ankle / surgery*
  • Arthrodesis / adverse effects
  • Arthrodesis / methods*
  • Biological Products / therapeutic use
  • Bone Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Bone Transplantation / methods*
  • Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Female
  • Foot / surgery*
  • Graft Rejection / diagnostic imaging
  • Graft Rejection / etiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms
  • Osteoarthritis / complications
  • Osteoarthritis / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthritis / therapy*
  • Pain / diagnosis
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain / prevention & control*
  • Radiography
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biological Products