Delivery of BMP-2 by two clinically available apatite materials: in vitro and in vivo comparison

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015 Feb;103(2):628-38. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.35211. Epub 2014 May 9.


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are deposited in bone and responsible for osteoinduction. The interplay between delivery system and BMP, resulting in a characteristic release profile, is crucial for clinical success. We here report on two apatite based commercially available granules which could potentially be used in a combination product with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2). Regardless of their similar chemistry, their interaction with rhBMP-2 differs. Deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM), a clinically well-established bone substitute, has a high affinity to rhBMP-2 and releases only 50% of the growth factor during the first 2 weeks in vitro. Activity of the physio-adsorbed rhBMP-2 is indicated by an enhanced bone augmentation in vivo. In contrast, all rhBMP-2 delivered in combination with synthetic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) granules is released during the first 24 h. For both HA/TCP and DBBM, the released rhBMP-2 is active in vitro. Our results suggest that the different release behavior from these two apatite granules is due to the 1000-fold higher specific surface area of DBBM compared to HA/TCP.

Keywords: BMP; bone morphogenetic protein; bone regeneration; bone substitute; delivery; release system.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2* / chemistry
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2* / pharmacokinetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2* / pharmacology
  • Bone Substitutes* / chemistry
  • Bone Substitutes* / pharmacology
  • Calcium Phosphates* / chemistry
  • Calcium Phosphates* / pharmacology
  • Cattle
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacology
  • Durapatite* / chemistry
  • Durapatite* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Rabbits


  • BMP2 protein, human
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Substitutes
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • beta-tricalcium phosphate
  • Durapatite