MicroRNAs: new regulators of Toll-like receptor signalling pathways

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:945169. doi: 10.1155/2014/945169. Epub 2014 Mar 20.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are responsible for the innate immune responses via signalling pathways to provide effective host defence against pathogen infections. However, TLR-signalling pathways are also likely to stringently regulate tissue maintenance and homeostasis by elaborate modulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators and as an essential part of the networks involved in regulating TLR-signalling pathways. In this review, we highlight our understanding of the regulation of miRNA expression profiles by TLR-signalling pathways and the regulation of TLR-signalling pathways by miRNAs. We focus on the roles of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signalling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, their associated signalling proteins and regulatory molecules, and transcription factors and functional cytokines induced by them, at multiple levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • MicroRNAs / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*


  • MicroRNAs
  • Toll-Like Receptors