The Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire (CHAQ): reliability, validity, and refinement

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2014 Apr;20(2):283-92. doi: 10.1037/a0034180.


This study describes the reliability and validity of scores on the Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire (CHAQ), and proposes a refined short form. Murguía, Zea, Reisen, and Peterson (2000) developed the 24-item CHAQ to assess health beliefs among Latinos/Hispanics. The CHAQ incorporates two 12-item subscales: Equity Attributions (EA) and Behavioral-Environmental Attributions (BEA). Although the CHAQ has been published in Spanish and English, psychometric properties have only been evaluated for scores on the Spanish-language version. Participants in the present study were 436 Latinos/Hispanics, half of whom completed the CHAQ in Spanish, and half in English. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the proposed two-factor structure did not fit the data for either language. Subsequent exploratory factor analyses revealed different best-fitting models for the two languages. A common two-factor (EA/BEA) structure was derived from items that loaded univocally in both languages. Additional items were removed to produce a 10-item revised version (CHAQ-R). The two factors were negatively correlated and had good internal consistency reliability. Expected relationships of CHAQ-R scores to acculturation and health locus of control strongly supported convergent validity. The relationship of EA to ethnomedical services usage marginally supported criterion validity. Overall, the results support the reliability and validity of CHAQ-R scores to measure cultural health attributions in Latinos/Hispanics, but further psychometric evaluation is needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cultural Characteristics*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health
  • Hispanic Americans / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Psychometrics / standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States
  • Young Adult