Vitamin D and its effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function and immune function

Horm Res Paediatr. 2014;81(6):363-78. doi: 10.1159/000357731. Epub 2014 Apr 26.


In recent years there has been increasing interest in the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D. It has been suggested that vitamin D deficiency may influence the development of diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of vitamin D and its deficiency on cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis and immune function, with a particular focus on children. Although, there is good evidence to show that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and an abnormality of the above systems, there is little evidence to show that vitamin D supplementation leads to an improvement in function, especially in childhood.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / drug effects
  • Adolescent
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena*
  • Cardiovascular System / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cholecalciferol / metabolism
  • Ergocalciferols
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Immunity / drug effects
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / physiology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology*


  • Ergocalciferols
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Glucose