Prevalence rates of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are increasing in parallel with the incidence rates of diabetes mellitus. DKD has already become a significant health problem worldwide. Without radical improvements in prevention and treatment, DKD prevalence will continue to climb. The pathogenesis of DKD is complex and multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors involved. Several nonmodifiable risk factors contribute to DKD, including genetics, sex, age, age at onset, and duration of diabetes. However, there are also several modifiable risk factors that have a strong effect on the risk of DKD. Traditional modifiable factors include glycemic control, blood pressure, lipids, and smoking. Other recently discovered modifiable risk factors include chronic low-grade inflammation, advanced glycation end products, and lack of physical activity. Efficient management of these modifiable risk factors may improve the prognosis of diabetic patients at risk of DKD.
Keywords: CKD; Diabetic kidney disease; ESRD; Epidemiology; Risk factors.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.