Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug;24(8):815-22. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Mar 1.


The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study is an ongoing observational survey that examines the role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 15,773 Italian subjects with type 2 diabetes. The analysis of data collected at the enrollment visit provided a picture of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with other complications, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and treatments in a large contemporary cohort. Main results of this analysis were that (a) non-albuminuric renal impairment is the predominant clinical phenotype in patients, particularly women, with reduced eGFR; (b) concordance between CKD and diabetic retinopathy is low, with only a minority of patients with renal dysfunction presenting with any or advanced retinal lesions; (c) the non-albuminuric form is associated with a significant prevalence of CVD, especially at the level of the coronary vascular bed; (d) CKD is associated with hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability more than with average HbA1c, whereas retinopathy and CVD are not; (e) in elderly individuals with moderate-to-severe eGFR reduction, use of agents which are not recommended, such as sulphonylureas and metformin, is still frequent; and (f) though complications are generally more prevalent in men (except non-albuminuric renal impairment) women show a less favorable CVD risk profile and achieve therapeutic targets to a lesser extent than men, despite the fact that treatment intensity is not lower. These data update existing information on the natural history of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Albuminuria; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Diabetic retinopathy; Type 2 diabetes; eGFR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds / therapeutic use


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds
  • Metformin