Osseointegration of short titan implants: A pilot study in pigs

Ann Anat. 2015 May:199:16-22. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Mar 27.


Reduced vertical bone level in the implantation area is often considered one of the limiting factors before implant insertion. Inserting implants of reduced length might be useful in order to avoid vertical bone augmentation prior to implantation. To the present day, no official guidelines exist as to the optimal length for these implants. It is nevertheless well known that the stability of an implant depends primarily on its osseointegration, which could otherwise be influenced by modifying implant surface texture. The aim of our study was to evaluate osseointegration in correlation with implant length and surface texture. Three different variations of titan implants (n=5) were compared: two types, each with an acid-etched and ceramic blasted surface, were inserted in the upper jaw of adult female minipigs at different lengths (tioLogic ST Shorty, 5mm length; tioLogic ST, 9mm length) and were compared to a control group (tioLogic ST, 9mm length, ceramic blasted surface). Eight weeks after unloaded healing, bone tissue specimens containing the implants were processed, stained with Masson-Goldner-trichrome and analyzed histologically. Regardless of implant length and surface texture, new bone formation with no signs of inflammation could be detected in the area of the threads. Implants with a modified surface showed no statistically significant difference in bone-implant-contact (BIC) (tioLogic ST Shorty, 56.5%; tioLogic(©)ST; 77.2%), but a statistically significant difference could be found, when the 9mm implants were compared to the control group (BIC 48.9%). Surface modification could positively influence osseointegration as well as contribute to overcoming the adverse effects of length reduction.

Keywords: Acid-etched and ceramic blasted surface; Osseointegration; Reduced length; Short implants; Shorty's; Surface modification.

MeSH terms

  • Acid Etching, Dental
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Ceramics
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis Design
  • Female
  • Mandible / anatomy & histology
  • Mandible / growth & development
  • Maxilla / anatomy & histology
  • Maxilla / growth & development
  • Osseointegration*
  • Surface Properties
  • Swine
  • Swine, Miniature
  • Titanium*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Dental Implants
  • Titanium