Aims: We aimed to assess the impact of eplerenone on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in STEMI without known heart failure, when initiated within 24 h of symptom onset.
Methods and results: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned 1012 patients with acute STEMI and without a history of heart failure to receive either eplerenone (25-50 mg once daily) or placebo in addition to standard therapy. The primary endpoint was the composite of CV mortality, re-hospitalization, or, extended initial hospital stay, due to diagnosis of HF, sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, ejection fraction ≤40%, or elevated BNP/NT-proBNP at 1 month or more after randomization. BNP elevation was defined as BNP levels or values above 200 pg/mL or NT-proBNP values above 450 pg/mL (in patients aged below 50); above 900 pg/mL (age 50-75 years) or above 1800 pg/mL (patients older than 75). After a mean follow-up of 10.5 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 92 patients (18.2%) in the eplerenone group and in 149 patients (29.4%) in the placebo group [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.76; P < 0.0001]. The primary endpoint was driven by a high BNP/NT-proBNP level (adjusted HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.79; P < 0.0003). Adverse event rates were similar in both groups. Serum potassium levels exceeded 5.5 mmol/L in 5.6 vs. 3.2% (P = 0.09) and were below 3.5 mmol/L in 1.4 vs. 5.6% of patients (P = 0.0002), in the eplerenone and placebo groups, respectively.
Conclusion: The addition of eplerenone during the acute phase of STEMI was safe and well tolerated. It reduced the primary endpoint over a mean 13 months follow-up mostly because of significantly lower BNP/NT-proBNP levels. Additional studies are needed to clarify the role of early use of MRAs in STEMI patients without heart failure.
Clinical trial registration: NCT01176968.
Keywords: B-type natriuretic peptide; Eplerenone; Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; Myocardial infarction; Potassium.
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