A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development

Dev Biol. 2014 Jul 15;391(2):133-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.04.016. Epub 2014 Apr 26.


We present a gene expression atlas of early mouse craniofacial development. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate cells from the principal critical microregions, whose development, differentiation and signaling interactions are responsible for the construction of the mammalian face. At E8.5, as migrating neural crest cells begin to exit the neural fold/epidermal ectoderm boundary, we examined the cranial mesenchyme, composed of mixed neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells, as well as cells from adjacent neuroepithelium. At E9.5 cells from the cranial mesenchyme, overlying olfactory placode/epidermal ectoderm, and underlying neuroepithelium, as well as the emerging mandibular and maxillary arches were sampled. At E10.5, as the facial prominences form, cells from the medial and lateral prominences, the olfactory pit, multiple discrete regions of underlying neuroepithelium, the mandibular and maxillary arches, including both their mesenchymal and ectodermal components, as well as Rathke's pouch, were similarly sampled and profiled using both microarray and RNA-seq technologies. Further, we performed single cell studies to better define the gene expression states of the early E8.5 pioneer neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm. Taken together, and analyzable by a variety of biological network approaches, these data provide a complementing and cross validating resource capable of fueling discovery of novel compartment specific markers and signatures whose combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and growth factors/receptors are responsible for providing the master genetic blueprint for craniofacial development.

Keywords: Gene expression atlas; Mammalian craniofacial development; Microarrays; RNA-seq.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement
  • Embryo, Mammalian / cytology
  • Face / embryology
  • Facial Bones / embryology*
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Laser Capture Microdissection
  • Maxillofacial Development*
  • Mesoderm / cytology
  • Mesoderm / embryology*
  • Mice
  • Neural Crest / cytology
  • Neural Crest / embryology
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Skull / embryology