Effects of piperine on the intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetics of linarin in rats

Molecules. 2014 Apr 30;19(5):5624-33. doi: 10.3390/molecules19055624.


Although linarin possesses diverse pharmacological activities, its poor oral bioavailability has been a concern for further development. The present study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improving the oral absorption of linarin in rats with a bioenhancer‒piperine. First, the intestinal permeability of linarin in the presence and absence of verapamil or piperine was investigated using an in situ single-pass rat intestinal perfusion method. A significant increase in the Peff when co-perfused with verapamil or piperine indicated that piperine effectively inhibited P-glycoprotein mediated efflux of linarin. Then, the pharmacokinetic profiles of linarin in rats after oral administration of linarin (50 mg/kg) alone and in combination with piperine (20 mg/kg) were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that piperine increased the plasma exposure (AUC) of linarin by 381% along with an increase in the Cmax by 346% and the Tmax from 0.05 h to 0.2 h. The present study revealed that piperine significantly enhanced the oral absorption of linarin in rats by inhibiting P-glycoprotein mediated cellular efflux during the intestinal absorption and likely simultaneously by inhibiting the metabolism of linarin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Alkaloids / administration & dosage*
  • Alkaloids / pharmacokinetics
  • Animals
  • Benzodioxoles / administration & dosage*
  • Benzodioxoles / pharmacokinetics
  • Biological Availability*
  • Glycosides / administration & dosage*
  • Glycosides / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption / drug effects
  • Permeability / drug effects
  • Piperidines / administration & dosage*
  • Piperidines / pharmacokinetics
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides / administration & dosage*
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides / pharmacokinetics
  • Rats
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Alkaloids
  • Benzodioxoles
  • Glycosides
  • Piperidines
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • linarin
  • piperine