Multivariate analysis of factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in school-age children

Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Feb;143(3):540-9. doi: 10.1017/S0950268814000855. Epub 2014 May 1.


We examined factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination (TIV) in children using the antibody titres of children participating in a Hong Kong community-based study. Antibody titres of strains included in the 2009-2010 northern hemisphere TIV [seasonal A(H1N1), seasonal A(H3N2) and B (Victoria lineage)] and those not included in the TIV [2009 pandemic A(H1N1) and B (Yamagata lineage)] were measured by haemagglutination inhibition immediately before and 1 month after vaccination. Multivariate regression models were fitted in a Bayesian framework to characterize the distribution of changes in antibody titres following vaccination. Statistically significant rises in geometric mean antibody titres were observed against all strains, with a wide variety of standard deviations and correlations in rises observed, with the influenza type B antibodies showing more variability than the type A antibodies. The dynamics of antibody titres after vaccination can be used in more complex models of antibody dynamics in populations.

Keywords: Immunization (vaccination); influenza; serology; statistics.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated