Our understanding of the dynamic tumor microenvironment (TME) has improved exponentially over the last few decades. In addition to traditional cytotoxic agents, anti-cancer strategies now include numerous molecular-targeted drugs that modulate distinct elements of the TME. Angiogenesis is an underlying promoter of tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. From traditional and emerging angiogenic cytokines and their receptors to novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, regulation of the tumor microenvironment is potentially key in countering tumor progression. In this article, an overview of the architecture of the TME and the orchestration of angiogenesis within the TME is provided. Additionally, traditional and novel angiogenic targets of current interest within the TME are reviewed.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.