Camel's milk ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in rats via downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress

Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jul;69:294-302. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.04.032. Epub 2014 Apr 28.


Current treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with several adverse effects, and thus, the search for effective agents with minimal side effects merits attention. Camel's milk (CM) is endowed with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory features and has been reported to protect against diabetes and hepatic injury, however, its effects on IBD have not been previously explored. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of CM against TNBS-induced colitis in rats. CM (10 ml/kg b.i.d. by oral gavage) effectively suppressed the severity of colon injury as evidenced by amelioration of macroscopic damage, colon weight/length ratio, histopathological alterations, leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of CM mitigated the colonic levels of TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines. The attenuation of CM to colon injury was also associated with suppression of oxidative stress via reduction of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide along with boosting the antioxidant defenses through restoration of colon glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity. In addition, caspases-3 activity, an apoptotic marker, was inhibited. Together, our study highlights evidences for the promising alleviating effects of CM in colitis. Thus, CM may be an interesting complementary approach for the management of IBD.

Keywords: Camel’s milk; Caspase-3; Colitis; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; TNBS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Camelus
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Caspase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Colitis / chemically induced
  • Colitis / drug therapy*
  • Colitis / pathology
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Leukocytes / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / pathology
  • Milk*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid / toxicity
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antioxidants
  • Caspase Inhibitors
  • Cytokines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
  • Peroxidase
  • Caspase 3