Endoscopic therapy with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate for the treatment of gastric varices

Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Sep;59(9):2178-83. doi: 10.1007/s10620-014-3148-9. Epub 2014 May 1.


Background: Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and limited endoscopic therapeutic options.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic therapy with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.

Methods: A single-center retrospective review of patients receiving endoscopic therapy for gastric variceal hemorrhage. Patient demographics, laboratory, and procedural data were collected. Patients were followed to death, liver transplantation, or last follow-up. Success rates were defined as immediate control of bleeding; early re-bleeding (1-7 days), short-term re-bleeding (1-12 weeks), overall survival, and serious procedure complications.

Results: A total of 41 patients (39 with cirrhosis) underwent 54 cyanoacrylate injections during study period. Mean age was 57 and 73 % were males. Twenty-four (58.5 %) patients had failed or were deemed ineligible for transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, and 5 % were done for primary prophylaxis. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in five active bleeders. During a median survival time of 117 days, early re-bleeding was seen in 1 (2.4 %), short-term re-bleeding in five patients (12 %), and varices were eradicated in 15 (46.8 %) patients on follow-up. Mean MELD score at the time of the first injection was 17.1 ± 7.8. Mean volume injected was 3.4 cc and median number of varices injected per session was one. Eight patients died during the long-term follow-up: metastatic cancer (2), infections (3), liver failure (1), and re-bleeding (2). There were no serious procedure-related complications.

Conclusions: Endoscopic cyanoacrylate therapy appears effective and safe for treatment of patients with bleeding from gastric varices or high-risk stigmata.

MeSH terms

  • Cyanoacrylates / therapeutic use*
  • End Stage Liver Disease / complications
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / complications
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / adverse effects
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Adhesives / therapeutic use*


  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Tissue Adhesives
  • octyl 2-cyanoacrylate