Background: Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and limited endoscopic therapeutic options.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic therapy with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.
Methods: A single-center retrospective review of patients receiving endoscopic therapy for gastric variceal hemorrhage. Patient demographics, laboratory, and procedural data were collected. Patients were followed to death, liver transplantation, or last follow-up. Success rates were defined as immediate control of bleeding; early re-bleeding (1-7 days), short-term re-bleeding (1-12 weeks), overall survival, and serious procedure complications.
Results: A total of 41 patients (39 with cirrhosis) underwent 54 cyanoacrylate injections during study period. Mean age was 57 and 73 % were males. Twenty-four (58.5 %) patients had failed or were deemed ineligible for transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, and 5 % were done for primary prophylaxis. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in five active bleeders. During a median survival time of 117 days, early re-bleeding was seen in 1 (2.4 %), short-term re-bleeding in five patients (12 %), and varices were eradicated in 15 (46.8 %) patients on follow-up. Mean MELD score at the time of the first injection was 17.1 ± 7.8. Mean volume injected was 3.4 cc and median number of varices injected per session was one. Eight patients died during the long-term follow-up: metastatic cancer (2), infections (3), liver failure (1), and re-bleeding (2). There were no serious procedure-related complications.
Conclusions: Endoscopic cyanoacrylate therapy appears effective and safe for treatment of patients with bleeding from gastric varices or high-risk stigmata.