A case-control study of the protective effect of alcohol, coffee, and cigarette consumption on Parkinson disease risk: time-since-cessation modifies the effect of tobacco smoking

PLoS One. 2014 Apr 30;9(4):e95297. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095297. eCollection 2014.


The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (total smoking) and PD risk. Data of a hospital based case-control study was used including 444 PD patients, diagnosed between 2006 and 2011, and 876 matched controls from 5 hospitals in the Netherlands. A novel modeling method was applied to derive unbiased estimates of the potential modifying effects of smoking intensity, duration, and time-since-cessation by conditioning on total exposure. We observed no reduced risk of PD by alcohol consumption and only a weak inverse association between coffee consumption and PD risk. However, a strong inverse association of total smoking with PD risk was observed (OR=0.27 (95%CI: 0.18-0.42) for never smokers versus highest quartile of tobacco use). The observed protective effect of total smoking was significantly modified by time-since-cessation with a diminishing protective effect after cessation of smoking. No effect modification by intensity or duration of smoking was observed indicating that both intensity and duration have an equal contribution to the reduced PD risk. Understanding the dynamics of the protective effect of smoking on PD risk aids in understanding PD etiology and may contribute to strategies for prevention and treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coffee*
  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease / prevention & control*
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Smoking*
  • Tobacco*


  • Coffee

Grant support

This work was supported by Stichting Internationaal Parkinson Fonds (www.parkinsonfonds.nl); and The Netherlands Organization for Health Research (ZonMW) within the program Electromagnetic Fields and Health Research under grant number 85800001. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.