Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread

Int J Food Microbiol. 2014 Jun 16;180:78-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.04.005. Epub 2014 Apr 13.


This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Nutritional and functional properties; Sourdough; Wheat–legume bread.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 6-Phytase / metabolism
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Bread / analysis
  • Bread / microbiology
  • Bread / standards*
  • Fabaceae
  • Female
  • Fermentation*
  • Flour / standards*
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillaceae / genetics
  • Lactobacillaceae / metabolism
  • Lactobacillaceae / physiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritive Value*
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sensation*
  • Triticum
  • Young Adult


  • Antioxidants
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • 6-Phytase