Recently, increased attention has been directed towards medicinal extracts as potential new drug candidates for dementia. Ginger has long been used as an important ingredient in cooking and traditional herbal medicine. In particular, ginger has been known to have disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no evidence of which constituents of ginger exhibit therapeutic effects against AD. A growing number of experimental studies suggest that 6-shogaol, a bioactive component of ginger, may play an important role as a memory-enhancing and anti-oxidant agent against neurological diseases. 6-Shogaol has also recently been shown to have anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated astrocytes and animal models of Parkinson's disease, LPS-induced inflammation and transient global ischemia. However, it is still unknown whether 6-shogaol has anti-inflammatory effects against oligomeric forms of the Aβ (AβO) in animal brains. Furthermore, the effects of 6-shogaol against memory impairment in dementia models are also yet to be investigated. In this study, we found that administration of 6-shogaol significantly reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis in intrahippocampal AβO-injected mice, ameliorated AβO and scopolamine-induced memory impairment, and elevated NGF levels and pre- and post-synaptic marker in the hippocampus. All these results suggest that 6-shogaol may play a role in inhibiting glial cell activation and reducing memory impairment in animal models of dementia.
Keywords: 6-Shogaol; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta oligomer; Cognitive dysfunction; Dementia; Neuroinflammation.
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