Acid-sensing hypothalamic neurons controlling arousal

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Aug;34(6):777-89. doi: 10.1007/s10571-014-0065-6. Epub 2014 May 6.


Breathing and vigilance are regulated by pH and CO2 levels in the central nervous system. The hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx)- and histamine (HA)-containing hypothalamic neurons synergistically control different aspects of the waking state. Acidification inhibits firing of most neurons but these two groups in the caudal hypothalamus are excited by hypercapnia and protons, similar to the chemosensory neurons in the brain stem. Activation of hypothalamic wake-on neurons in response to hypercapnia, seen with the c-Fos assay, is supported by patch-clamp recordings in rodent brain slices: Hcrt/Orx and HA neurons are excited by acidification in the physiological range (pH from 7.4 to 7.0). Multiple molecular mechanisms mediate wake-promoting effects of protons in HA neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN): among them are acid-sensing ion channels, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRI). HA neurons are remarkably sensitive to the mGluRI agonist DHPG (threshold concentration 0.5 µM) and mGluRI antagonists abolish proton-induced excitation of HA neurons. Hcrt/Orx neurons are excited through block of a potassium conductance and release glutamate with their peptides in TMN. The two hypothalamic nuclei and the serotonergic dorsal raphe cooperate toward CO2/acid-induced arousal. Their interactions and molecular mechanisms of H(+)/CO2-induced activation are relevant for the understanding and treatment of respiratory and metabolic disorders related to sleep-waking such as obstructive sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acid Sensing Ion Channels / metabolism*
  • Action Potentials / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus / metabolism*
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • Orexins


  • Acid Sensing Ion Channels
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Orexins
  • Glutamic Acid