High-throughput and combinatorial gene expression on a chip for metabolism-induced toxicology screening

Nat Commun. 2014 May 6;5:3739. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4739.


Differential expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in the human liver may cause deviations of pharmacokinetic profiles, resulting in interindividual variability of drug toxicity and/or efficacy. Here, we present the 'Transfected Enzyme and Metabolism Chip' (TeamChip), which predicts potential metabolism-induced drug or drug-candidate toxicity. The TeamChip is prepared by delivering genes into miniaturized three-dimensional cellular microarrays on a micropillar chip using recombinant adenoviruses in a complementary microwell chip. The device enables users to manipulate the expression of individual and multiple human metabolizing-enzyme genes (such as CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and UGT1A4) in THLE-2 cell microarrays. To identify specific enzymes involved in drug detoxification, we created 84 combinations of metabolic-gene expressions in a combinatorial fashion on a single microarray. Thus, the TeamChip platform can provide critical information necessary for evaluating metabolism-induced toxicity in a high-throughput manner.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Gene Expression*
  • High-Throughput Screening Assays / methods*
  • Humans
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism


  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System