Thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin pigments

Food Chem. 2014 Oct 1;160:246-54. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.105. Epub 2014 Apr 1.


3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are promising natural colourants due to their unique properties compared to anthocyanins. However, thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins is largely unknown. Thermal stability of crude and pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidins was determined at 95 °C/2 h and 121 °C/30 min, at pH 1-7 using HCl, formic or citric acid as acidulants. The colour retention of crude and pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (79-89% after 95 °C/2 h and 39-118% after 121 °C/30 min) was high compared to literature reports for anthocyanins under similar treatments. pH significantly affected the thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins: Colour retention was better at pH 1-2 (70.2-118%) than at pH 3-7 (39.0-86.8%). Chalcones were identified as the major heat degradation products at pH 3-7. Slow rate of chalcone formation and resistance to C-ring fission were identified as the major contributors to thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. Overall, the heat stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins indicates good potential for food use.

Keywords: 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins; Anthocyanins; Heat stability; Natural colour.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / chemistry*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Pigments, Biological / chemistry*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Pigments, Biological