Background: Several risk factors are attributed to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study was done to determine any association between hyperglycemia and ROP in premature infants.
Methods: In a retrospective case-control analysis, all infants with a gestational age (GA) < 34 weeks and a birthweight (BW) < 2000 g admitted and treated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children's Hospital, Iran, during March 2007-September 2010 were included. Hyperglycemia was defined as a plasma glucose level of >150 mg/dL during the hospital stay. The duration of being hyperglycemic was also recorded. All of these neonates were examined for ROP by a retinologist unaware of group assignment. The difference in the ROP incidence and also the severity of ROP was compared between the hyperglycemic and non-hyperglycemic infants. Matching was done for GA, BW, and also Clinical Risk Index for Babies score. The data were analyzed by t-test, χ(2) -test and logistic regression test and a P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: In total, 155 neonates were examined. Seventy (45.2%) of them developed ROP but 85 (54.8%) did not show any evidence of ROP. The frequency of hyperglycemia in patients with ROP was 33 (47.2%), but in those without ROP, hyperglycemia occurred in five (5.9%) (P = 0.0001). The severity of ROP showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.35). The logistic regression for GA and BW showed a significant correlation between hyperglycemia and ROP (P = 0.0001).
Conclusions: Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for ROP that can be prevented along with other risk factors by accurate supervision.
Keywords: hyperglycemia; infant; premature; retinopathy of prematurity.
© 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.