Modeling the effect of cigarette smoke on hexose utilization in spermatocytes

Reprod Sci. 2015 Jan;22(1):94-101. doi: 10.1177/1933719114533727. Epub 2014 May 6.


We set out to determine whether the addition of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist has an effect on glucose/fructose utilization in the spermatocyte when exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We exposed male germ cells to 5 and 40 μg/mL of CSC ± 10 μmol/L of AHR antagonist at various time points. Immunoblot expression of specific glucose/fructose transporters was compared to control. Radiolabeled uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and fructose was also performed. Spermatocytes utilized fructose nearly 50-fold more than 2-DG. Uptake of 2-DG decreased after CSC + AHR antagonist exposure. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) 9a and 12 declined after CSC + AHR antagonist exposure. Synergy between CSC and the AHR antagonist in spermatocytes may disrupt the metabolic profile in vitro. Toxic exposures alter energy homeostasis in early stages of male germ cell development, which could contribute to later effects explaining decreases in sperm motility in smokers.

Keywords: GLUT12; GLUT9a; cigarette smoke; fructose; spermatocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Azo Compounds / toxicity
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Deoxyglucose / metabolism
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Fructose / metabolism
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / metabolism
  • Hexoses / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Pyrazoles / toxicity
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / metabolism
  • Smoke / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Spermatocytes / drug effects*
  • Spermatocytes / metabolism
  • Time Factors


  • 2-methyl-2H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2-methyl-4-o-tolylazophenyl)amide
  • Ahr protein, mouse
  • Azo Compounds
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative
  • Hexoses
  • Pyrazoles
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
  • Slc2a12 protein, mouse
  • Slc2a9 protein, mouse
  • Smoke
  • Fructose
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Deoxyglucose