Tracking Navigation Imaging of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT Angiography

Liver Cancer. 2014 Mar;3(1):53-61. doi: 10.1159/000343858.


Purpose: New tracking navigation imaging software was used to evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional (3D) CT angiography for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials and methods: Fifty-two patients with 73 HCCs were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Rotational angiography was performed from the hepatic artery for evaluation of the tumor feeding vessels. Arteries feeding the tumor were traced automatically by adjusting the region of interest around the targeted tumor on axial and coronal images using tracking navigation imaging with 3D cone-beam CT angiography.

Results: Using final selective angiographic findings as the gold standard, the detection of feeding vessels was 90.4% (66/73) for tracking navigation imaging and 50.7% (37/73) for celiac trunk angiography. This difference was statistically significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of feeding arteries were 97.1% (66/68), 80.0% (4/5), 98.5% (66/67), and 66.7% (4/6), respectively. The kappa coefficient had a value of 0.638 (95% CI: 0.471-0.805), which is considered to indicate a good degree of agreement. With the assistance of tracking navigation imaging, the disease control rate of TACE for HCC was 67.3% (35/52) according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. During follow-up periods of 1-11 months, 10 patients (19.2%) remained cancer-free after TACE.

Conclusion: Tracking navigation imaging with 3D cone-beam CT angiography should be useful for TACE in HCC patients with complicated feeding arteries.

Keywords: Feeding arteries; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Three-dimensional cone-beam CT angiography; Tracking navigation imaging; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.