Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 1 (2), 152-155

Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

Affiliations

Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

Alexander S Keller et al. Environ Sci Technol Lett.

Abstract

Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Association of TDCPP in tent wipes and paired hand wipe samples.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 6 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Stapleton H. M.; et al. Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45125323–5331. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Stapleton H. M.; et al. Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 462413432–13439. - PMC - PubMed
    1. de Wit C. A. An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 2002, 465583–624. - PubMed
    1. Alaee M.; et al. An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release. Environ. Int. 2003, 296683–689. - PubMed
    1. Tullo A. Great Lakes to phase out flame retardants. Chem. Eng. News 2003, 814513.
Feedback