Objective: A treatment-as-usual randomized wait-list controlled trial was conducted to investigate the feasibility and impact of an online synchronous Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) group program for underserved distressed cancer survivors.
Methods: Sixty-two men and women exhibiting moderate to high distress within 3 years of completing primary cancer treatment without access to in-person MBCR were randomized to either immediate online MBCR (n = 30) or to wait for the next available program (n = 32). Participants completed questionnaires preintervention and postintervention or wait period online. Program evaluations were completed after MBCR. Feasibility was tracked through monitoring eligibility and participation through the protocol. Intent-to-treat mixed-model analyses for repeated measures were conducted.
Results: Feasibility targets for recruitment and retention were achieved, and participants were satisfied and would recommend online MBCR. There were significant improvements and moderate Cohen d effect sizes in the online MBCR group relative to controls after MBCR for total scores of mood disturbance (d = 0.44, p = .049), stress symptoms (d = 0.49, p = .021), spirituality (d = 0.37, p = .040), and mindfully acting with awareness (d = 0.50, p = .026). Main effects of time were observed for posttraumatic growth and remaining mindfulness facets.
Conclusions: Results provide evidence for the feasibility and efficacy of an online adaptation of MBCR for the reduction of mood disturbance and stress symptoms, as well as an increase in spirituality and mindfully acting with awareness compared with a treatment-as-usual wait-list. Future study using larger active control RCT designs is warranted.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01476891.