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, 9 (5), e96838
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Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum) and Related Species

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Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum) and Related Species

Hermann Voglmayr et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Phylogram showing phylogenetic relationships of Peronospora accessions from Papaver and Meconopsis.
One of 16 most parsimonious trees 1035 steps long inferred from the combined cox1-cox2 sequence data matrix; parsimony and likelihood bootstrap support above 50% and posterior probabilities above 90% are given at first, second and third position, respectively, above/below the branches. The tree was rooted with two species of Pseudoperonospora according to Göker et al. .
Figure 2
Figure 2. Morphological features of Peronospora apula.
a, b conidiophores; c ultimate branchlets; d–h conidia; i–k oogonia and oospores. Sources: a, e–k WU 32410, holotype; b WU 32408; c, d WU 32409. Scale bars a, b 50 µm, c–k 20 µm.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Morphological features of Peronospora arborescens.
a, b conidiophores; c ultimate branchlets; d–h conidia; i–k oogonia and oospores. Sources: a WU 32416; b, k WU 32411; c, f, g WU 32412; d, h WU 32418; e WU 32413. Scale bars a 100 µm, b 50 µm, c–k 20 µm.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Morphological features of Peronospora argemones.
a, b conidiophores; c ultimate branchlets; d–h conidia; i–k oogonia and oospores. Sources: a, c GLM 64084; b K(M) 181196, holotype. Scale bars a, b 50 µm, c-k 20 µm.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Morphological features of Peronospora cristata.
a-c conidiophores; d ultimate branchlets; e–i conidia; j–l oogonia and oospores. Sources: a, b, d, e, j, k LE 185561, holotype; c, h WU 32419; f, g, i, l WU 32421. Scale bars a-c 50 µm, d-l 20 µm.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Morphological features of Peronospora meconopsidis.
a, b conidiophores; c ultimate branchlets; d–h conidia; i–k oogonia and oospores. Sources: a, f, g WU 32426; b, c–e NEU, holotype; h WU 32425; i K(M) 179241; j, k K(M) 179245. Scale bars a, b 50 µm, c–k 20 µm.
Figure 7
Figure 7. Morphological features of Peronospora somniferi.
a, b conidiophores; c ultimate branchlets; d–h conidia; i–k oogonia and oospores. Sources: a, g WU 32432; b, d, i–k WU 32428, holotype; c MA 65574; e, f WU 32429; h WU 32430. Scale bars a, b 50 µm, c–k 20 µm.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Disease symptoms of Peronospora meconopsidis and P. somniferi on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
a, b polyangular leaf lesions of P. meconopsidis; c, d systemic infection of P. somniferi from above (c) and from underneath (d), showing the grey down. Sources: a WU 32424; b WU 32426; c, d WU 32428, holotype.

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