Imaging light responses of foveal ganglion cells in the living macaque eye

J Neurosci. 2014 May 7;34(19):6596-605. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4438-13.2014.


The fovea dominates primate vision, and its anatomy and perceptual abilities are well studied, but its physiology has been little explored because of limitations of current physiological methods. In this study, we adapted a novel in vivo imaging method, originally developed in mouse retina, to explore foveal physiology in the macaque, which permits the repeated imaging of the functional response of many retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) simultaneously. A genetically encoded calcium indicator, G-CaMP5, was inserted into foveal RGCs, followed by calcium imaging of the displacement of foveal RGCs from their receptive fields, and their intensity-response functions. The spatial offset of foveal RGCs from their cone inputs makes this method especially appropriate for fovea by permitting imaging of RGC responses without excessive light adaptation of cones. This new method will permit the tracking of visual development, progression of retinal disease, or therapeutic interventions, such as insertion of visual prostheses.

Keywords: calcium imaging; in vivo adaptive optics imaging; intrinsic signal imaging; primate fovea; retinal ganglion cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia
  • Animals
  • Dependovirus / genetics
  • Electrophysiological Phenomena
  • Eye / anatomy & histology
  • Eye / radiation effects*
  • Eye Movements / physiology
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Fovea Centralis / cytology
  • Fovea Centralis / radiation effects*
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Light Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Light*
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Neuroimaging / methods
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / physiology
  • Retina / growth & development
  • Retinal Degeneration / pathology
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / radiation effects*
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio


  • Fluorescent Dyes