Using TRIP for genome-wide position effect analysis in cultured cells

Nat Protoc. 2014;9(6):1255-81. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.072. Epub 2014 May 8.


The influence of local chromatin context on gene expression can be explored by integrating a transcription reporter at different locations in the genome as a sensor. Here we provide a detailed protocol for analyzing thousands of reporters integrated in parallel (TRIP) at a genome-wide level. TRIP is based on tagging each reporter with a unique barcode, which is used for independent reporter expression analysis and integration site mapping. Compared with previous methods for studying position effects, TRIP offers a 100-1,000-fold higher throughput in a faster and less-labor-intensive manner. The entire experimental protocol takes ∼42 d to complete, with high-throughput sequencing and data analysis requiring an additional ∼11 d. TRIP was developed by using transcription reporters in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, but because of its flexibility the method can be used to probe the influence of chromatin context on a variety of molecular processes in any transfectable cell line.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • Chromosomal Position Effects / genetics*
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics*
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods
  • Mice
  • Polynucleotides / genetics


  • Chromatin
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Polynucleotides