Latinos in the United States on the HIV/AIDS care continuum by birth country/region: a systematic review of the literature

Int J STD AIDS. 2015 Jan;26(1):1-12. doi: 10.1177/0956462414532242. Epub 2014 May 8.


Twenty percent of Latinos with HIV in the US are unaware of their HIV status, 33% are linked to care late, and 74% do not reach viral suppression. Disparities along this HIV/AIDS care continuum may be present between various ethnic groups historically categorised as Latino. To identify differences along the HIV/AIDS care continuum between US Latinos of varying birth countries/regions a systematic review of articles published in English between 2002 and 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on one or more steps of the HIV/AIDS care continuum and reported results by birth country/region for Latinos were included. Latinos born in Mexico and Central America were found to be at increased risk of late diagnosis compared with US-born Latinos. No studies were found that reported on linkage to HIV care or viral load suppression by country/region of birth. Lower survival was found among Latinos born in Puerto Rico compared with Latinos born in mainland US. Inconsistent differences in survival were found among Latinos born in Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. Socio/cultural context, immigration factors, and documentation status are discussed as partial explanations for disparities along the HIV/AIDS care continuum.

Keywords: AIDS; HIV; Hispanics; Latinos; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; country of birth; epidemiology; health disparities; human immunodeficiency virus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Central America / ethnology
  • Continuity of Patient Care / organization & administration*
  • Delayed Diagnosis / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / ethnology*
  • HIV Infections / therapy
  • Healthcare Disparities / ethnology*
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / ethnology
  • South America / ethnology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Viral Load / statistics & numerical data