Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer but international reports suggest that increasing risks are associated with the procedure. We estimated incidence and risk factors for infection after prostate biopsy as well as 90-day mortality using a nationwide Swedish sample.
Material and methods: We performed a population based study of 51,321 men from PCBaSe between 2006 and 2011. Primary outcome measures were dispensed prescriptions of antibiotics for urinary tract infection and hospitalization with a discharge diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for infection in men who underwent prostate biopsy.
Results: During the 6 months before biopsy the background incidence of urinary tract infection was approximately 2%. Within 30 days after biopsy 6% of the men had a dispensed prescription for urinary tract antibiotics and 1% were hospitalized with infection. The strongest risk factors for an antibiotic prescription were prior infection (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.45-1.73), high Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41) and diabetes (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17-1.49). Risk of an antibiotic prescription after biopsy decreased from 2006 to 2011 (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.90) but the risk of hospital admission increased (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.58-2.94). No significant increase was observed in 90-day mortality.
Conclusions: Severe infections with hospitalization after prostate biopsy are increasing in Sweden. The risk of post-biopsy infection is highest in men with a history of urinary tract infection and those with significant comorbidities.
Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; biopsy; complications; prostate; urinary tract infections.
Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.